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2020 ESS-N: Case Studies ESS-N 2020

1. Greenland Case Study

General Information

Map of Greenland

Population of Greenland

Greenland Embassy in Beijing, China,” Consul.info, accessed 29 February 2020.

Alaska Science Center, “Sea Ice – Habitat Dynamics”, United States Geological Survey.

Government Documents

The State Council Information Office of the People’s Republic of China, "China’s Arctic Policy," January 26, 2018, accessed May 27, 2019.

European Council, "Council Decision 2014/137/EU of 14 March 2014 on relations between the EU, Greenland and Denmark."

2009 Act on Greenland Self-Government

Greenland Treaty of 1985

Secondary Sources

Arctic Council, “Snow, Water, Ice and Permafrost in the Arctic: Summary for Policy Makers,” Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme, 2017.

Bertelsen, Rasmus Gjedssø and Klaus Georg Hansen, "From Energy to Knowledge? Building Domestic Knowledge-Based Sectors around Hydro Energy in Iceland and Greenland," in Diplomacy on Ice: Energy and the Environment in the Arctic and Antarctic, eds. Rebecca Pincus and Saleem H. Ali, Yale University Press: New Haven, 2015.

Boersma, Tim and Kevin Foley, "The Greenland Gold Rush: Promise and Pitfalls of Greenland’s Energy and Mineral Resources," Brookings, September 2014.

Bourne, Joel K. Jr. "See Russia’s massive new gas plant on the Arctic coast." National Geographic. 22 March 2019.

Breum, Martin, “A rare poll hints at real differences between Danish and Greenlandic thinking on Greenland independence,” Arctic Today, 22 January 2019.

Breum, Martin, “Greenland's Premier: "We must work towards independence," High North News, 20 January 2020.

Cammarata, Sarah, and Daniel Lippman, “Trump's budget gives Greenland another try,” Politico, 19 February 2020.

Degeorges, Damien and Saleem H. Ali, "Connecting China through "Creative Diplomacy": Greenland, Australia, and Climate Cooperation in Polar Regions," Diplomacy on Ice: Energy and the Environment in the Arctic and Antarctic, eds. Rebecca Pincus and Saleem H. Ali, Yale University Press: New Haven, 2015.

Foley, Kevin, "The Politics of Economic Security: Denmark, Greenland and Chinese Mining Investment," in Greenland and the International Politics of a Changing Arctic: Postcolonial Paradiplomacy between High and Low Politics, edited by Kristian Søby Kristensen and Jon Rahbek-Clemmensen, Routledge: New York, 2018.

Gerhardt, Hannes, "The divergent scalar strategies of Greenlandic government and the Inuit Circumpolar Council," in Greenland and the International Politics of a Changing Arctic: Postcolonial Paradiplomacy between High and Low Politics, edited by Kristian Søby Kristensen and Jon Rahbek-Clemmensen, Routledge: New York, 2018.

Gosnell, Rachael and Andreas Hildenbrand, "Emerging Challenges in Arctic Security and Recommendations for the Future: Perspectives from the European Security Seminar-North 19-05," Security Insights, no. 24, March 2019, 2.

Henley, Jon, “Greenland's receding icecap to expose top-secret US nuclear project,” The Guardian, 27 September 2016.

Hinshaw, Drew and Jeremy Page, "How the Pentagon Countered China's Designs on Greenland; Washington urged Denmark to finance airports that Chinese aimed to build on North America's doorstep," Wall Street Journal (Online), New York, N.Y., 10 February 2019.

Intelligence Risk Assessment 2019, Danish Defence Intelligence Service, 20 November 2019, Copenhagen.

Jacobsen, Marc and Ulrik Pram Gad, "Setting the scene in Nuuk: Introducing the cast of characters in Greenlandic foreign policy narratives," in Greenland and the International Politics of a Changing Arctic: Postcolonial Paradiplomacy between High and Low Politics, edited by Kristian Søby Kristensen and Jon Rahbek-Clemmensen, Routledge: New York, 2018.

Kristensen, Kristian Søby and Jon Rahbek-Clemmensen, "Introduction," in Greenland and the International Politics of a Changing Arctic: Postcolonial Paradiplomacy between High and Low Politics, Routledge: New York, 2018.

Kristensen, Kristian Søby and Jon Rahbek-Clemmensen, "Greenlandic sovereignty in practice: Uranium, independence, and foreign relations in Greenland," in Greenland and the International Politics of a Changing Arctic: Postcolonial Paradiplomacy between High and Low Politics, Routledge: New York, 2018.

Lackenbauer, P. Whitney, Adam Lajeunesse, James Manicom, and Frédéric Lasserre, China’s Arctic Ambitions and What They Mean for Canada, University of Calgary Press: Calgary, 2018.

McGwin, Kevin, "As industry rebounds, likelihood of new Greenlandic mines grows," Arctic Today, September 25, 2018.

Meyer, Robinson, "Greenland is Falling Apart," The Atlantic, 23 April 2019.

Mouginot, Jérémie, Eric Rignot, Anders A. Bjørk, Michiel van den Broeke, Romain Millan, Mathieu Morlighem, Brice Noël, Bernd Scheuchl and Michael Wood, "Forty-six years of Greenland Ice Sheet mass balance from 1972 to 2018," PNAS, vol. 116, no. 19, 9239.

Nagesh, Ashitha, “'This is very scary': Greenlanders on Trump wanting to buy their island,” BBC News, 24 August 2019.

Olesen, Mikkel Runge, "Lightning Rod: US, Greenlandic and Danish relations in the shadow of postcolonial reputations," in Greenland and the International Politics of a Changing Arctic: Postcolonial Paradiplomacy between High and Low Politics, edited by Kristian Søby Kristensen and Jon Rahbek-Clemmensen, Routledge: New York, 2018.

Østhagan, Andreas, "Coast Guard Collaboration in the Arctic: Canada and Greenland (Denmark)," Munk-Gordon Arctic Security Program, 2014, 14.

Pelaudeix, Cécile, "EU-Greenland relations and sustainable development in the Arctic," in Global Challenges in the Arctic Region: Sovereignty, Environment and Geopolitical Balance, edited by Elena Conde and Sara Iglesias Sanchez, Routledge: New York, 2017.

Pelaudeix, Cécile, "Governance of offshore hydrocarbon activities in the Arctic and energy policies: a comparative approach between Norway, Canada, Greenland/Denmark," in Governance of Arctic Offshore Oil and Gas, edited by Cécile Pelaudeix and Ellen Basse, Routledge: London, 2018.

Peter, Laurence, “Danes see Greenland security risk amid Arctic tensions,” BBC News, 29 November 2019.

Raspotnik, Andreas, The European Union and the Geopolitics of the Arctic, Edward Elgar Publishing: Cheltenham, 2018.

Sakhuja, Vijay and Kapil Narula, Asia and the Arctic: Narratives, Perspectives and Policies. Springer Geology, Singapore: Springer, 2016.

Schionning, Bjorn, "As the Ice Melts, Greenland Considers Its Future", BBC News, 9 January 2020.

Simpson, John, “How Greenland could become China’s Arctic base” BBC News, 18 December 2018.

Sørensen, Camilla T.N., "Chinese Investments in Greenland: Promises and risks as seen from Nuuk, Copenhagen and Biejing," in Greenland and the International Politics of a Changing Arctic: Postcolonial Paradiplomacy between High and Low Politics, edited by Kristian S. Kristensen and Jon Rahbek-Clemmensen, Routledge: New York, 2018. 

2.1 Yamal Case Study - Oil and Gas

General Information

Map: Overview of gas pipelines in operation and fields in Yamal in January 2020.

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Osborne E., J. Richter-Menge, and M. Jeffries,”Executive Summary [in NOAA Arctic Report Card 2018], p.2-3.  

Entry on “Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug, Russia,” The Northern Forum (15 July 2019). 

Entry on “Yamalo-Nenets District, Russia,” Encyclopaedia Britannica (04 May 2015).

“FID Taken on Arctic LNG 2 Project,” The Maritime Executive, 09 August 2019.

Gazprom, “Projects,” official company website, accessed 16 July 2019.  

Greenpeace. “Arctic Oil Drilling.” Accessed 14 May 2019. 

JSC Yamal LNG, “About the Project”, 2020.

JSC Yamal LNG, “Social Responsibility”, 2015.

Government Documents

European Council, “Council Regulation No 833/2014 of 31 July 2014 concerning restrictive measures in view of Russia's actions destabilising the situation in Ukraine.”

Secondary Sources

Adomaitis, Nerijus, and Katya Golubkova, “Exclusive: Sanctions gap lets Western firms tap Russian frontier oil.” Reuters, 02 August 2017.   

Astrasheuskaya, Nastassia, “US and EU sanctions take toll on Russian oil and gas exploration,” Financial Times, 11 November 2019.  

Barteczko, Agnieszka and Katya Golubkova, “UPDATE 1-Poland's PGNiG tells Gazprom it plans to end gas supply deal in 2022,” Reuters, 15 November 2019.

Bourne, Joel K. Jr., “See Russia’s massive new gas plant on the Arctic coast,” National Geographic, 22 March 2019.  

Lackenbauer, P. Whitney, Adam Lajeunesse, James Manicom, and Frédéric Lasserre, China’s Arctic Ambitions and What They Mean for Canada, University of Calgary Press: Calgary, 2018.  

Meng, Meng and Jessica Jaganathan. “Russia's Novatek signs non-binding deals for Arctic LNG 2 project.” Reuters. 02 April 2019.  

Nakano, Jane, “Japan to Invest in the Latest Russian LNG Project,” Center for Strategic and International Studies, 12 July 2019.  

New Europe, “Gas reserves of Russian field in Yamal raised to 2 trillion cubic metres,” 10 January 2020.

Sakhuja, Vijay and Kapil Narula. Asia and the Arctic: Narratives, Perspectives and Policies. Springer Geology. Singapore: Springer, 2016.

Sidortsov, Roman, “The Russian offshore oil and gas regime: When tight control means less order,” in: Governance of Arctic Offshore Oil and Gas, Routledge: London, 2018.

Slav, Irina, “BP, Rosneft Team Up on Arctic Gas Exploration.” Oilprice.com, 21 December 2017.  

Staalesen, Atle, “Russia’s grand LNG project takes its toll on Arctic environment.” The Barents Observer. January 08, 2018.

Staalesen, Atle, “More and bigger sinkholes on Yamal tundra,” The Barents Observer, August 31, 2018, accessed 18 July 2019.  

Staalesen, Atle, “On remote and frail tundra lands of Yamal could come a huge petrochemical plant,” The Barents Observer, 18 December 2019.

Staalesen, Atle “Putin’s new Arctic law paves way for biggest ever industrialization in icy north,” The Barents Observer, 19 December 2019.

Staalesen, Atle, “Troublesome start for first Arctic LNG plant manufactured by Russia,” The Barents Observer, 23 January 2020.

Soldatkin, Vladimir, “Gazprom seeks bigger gas market share in Europe after bumper exports.” Reuters. 06 February 2019.  

Timofeev, Ivan, “Russia-Japan Dialogue: The Sanctions Factor,” Vladai Discussion Club, 21 January 2019, accessed 15 July 2019.  

Timonina, Liubov, “Yamal Gas Rush: Novatek to Launch its Third LNG in 2022,” High North News, 24 May 2019.

2.2 Yamal Case Study - Northern Sea Route

Government Documents

“Action Plan on military mobility: EU takes steps towards a Defence Union,” European Commission, 28 March 2018.

“The Basics about NORDEFCO,” Nordic Defence Cooperation, accessed 15 March 2019.

European Defence Agency, “Permanent Structured Cooperation (PESCO),” accessed 15 March 2019.

“China’s Arctic Policy,” People’s Republic of China, January 2018.

The Northern Sea Route Administration, “The Rules of navigation on the water area of the Northern Sea Route,” The Russian Federation, January 17, 2013.

“Northern group defence ministers met in The Hague,” Government Offices of Sweden, published 07 June 2018, accessed 15 March 2019.

“International partners sign Joint Expeditionary Force agreement,” UK Ministry of Defence, published 05 September 2014, accessed 15 March 2019.

NATO, “NATO's new spearhead force gears up,” accessed 15 March 2019.

Secondary Sources

Conley, Heather, Jeffrey Rathke and Matthew Malino, “Enhanced Deterrence in the North: A 21st Century European Engagement Strategy,” Center for Strategic and International Studies, February 2018.

Danish Defence Intelligence Service, Intelligence Risk Assessment 2019, 20 November 2019, Copenhagen.

Humpert, Malte, "The U.S. Navy ups its Arctic engagement, sending ships north and establishing a temporary presence in Iceland,” High North News, 27 September 2019.

Lalonde, Suzanne, “The Northwest Passage and Northern Sea Route: Sovereignty and responsibilities,” in: Global Challenges in the Arctic Region: Sovereignty, Environment and Geopolitical Balance, edited by Elena Conde and Sara Iglesias Sanchez, Routledge: New York, 2017, 42-74.

Middleton, Alexandra, “Northern Sea Route: From Speculations to Reality by 2035,” High North News, 07 January 2020.

Moe, Arild, “Arctic Shipping: Images and Realities,” in Arctic Governance; Energy, Living Marine Resources and Shipping, edited by Svein Vigeland Rottem and Ida Folkestad Soltvedt, I.B. Tauris: London, 2018, 183-202.

Pezard, Stephanie, Abbie Tingstad, Kristin Van Abel, Scott Stephenson, Maintaining Arctic Cooperation with Russia: Planning for Regional Change in the Far North, RAND Corporation: National Defense Research Institute, 2017.

Sobrido, Marta, “The position of the European Union on the Svalbard waters,” in: Global Challenges in the Arctic Region: Sovereignty, Environment and Geopolitical Balance, edited by Elena Conde and Sara Iglesias Sanchez, Routledge: New York, 2017, 75-106.

Sørensen, Camilla T. N. and Ekaterina Klimenko, “Emerging Chinese-Russian Cooperation in the Arctic: Possibilities and Constraints,” SIPRI Policy Paper 46, June 2017.

Staalesen, Atle, “Putin’s new Arctic law paves way for biggest ever industrialization in icy north,” The Barents Observer, 19 December 2019.

Stokke, Olav Schram, “Governing Arctic Shipping: Institutional Niches and Regional Regimes,” in Arctic Governance; Energy, Living Marine Resources and Shipping, edited by Svein Vigeland Rottem and Ida Folkestad Soltvedt, I.B. Tauris: London, 2018, 228-252.

Tallis, Joshua, “While ‘Arctic Exceptionalism’ Melts Away, the US Isn’t Sure What It Wants Next,” DefenseOne, 22 January 2020.

3. Svalbard Archipelago Case Study

Klett, T. R., and D. L. Gautier, Assessment of Undiscovered Petroleum Resources of the Barents Sea Shelf: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2009 (June 2009).

Koivurova, Timo and Filip Holiencin, "Demilitarisation and Neutralisation of Svalbard," Polar Record, Volume 53 Issue 2, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 25 January 2017.

Lackenbauer, P. Whitney, Adam Lajeunesse, James Manicom, and Frédéric Lasserre, China’s Arctic Ambitions and What They Mean for Canada, University of Calgary Press: Calgary, 2018.

Neumann, Thilo, "Norway and Russia Agree on Maritime Boundary in the Barents Sea and the Arctic Ocean," American Society of International Law: Insights, 14, no 34, November 2010, accessed 20 May 2019.

The Norwegian Centre for Climate Services, Climate in Svalbard 2100 – a knowledge base for climate adaptation, January 2019.

Norwegian Polar Institute, "Svalbard", 22 January 2018.

Nyhama, Tore, "Three Future Scenarios for Nordic Military Operations," Norwegian Defence Research Establishment, May 2019, 17.

Østhagen, Andreas, “Managing Conflict at Sea: The Case of Norway and Russia in the Svalbard Zone,” Arctic Review on Law and Politics, Vol. 9, 2018, pp. 100-123.

Sakhuja, Vijay and Kapil Narula. Asia and the Arctic: Narratives, Perspectives and Policies. Springer Geology. Singapore: Springer, 2016.

Skogen, Tone, "Norwegian Security Policy – Including Participation in the CSDP," speech given to the EU Parliamentary Subcommittee on Security and Defence, 27 February 2018.

Sobrido, Marta, "Treaty of Paris," Global Challenges in the Arctic Region: Sovereignty, Environment and Geopolitical Balance, eds. Elena Conde, Sara Iglesias Sánchez, London: Routledge, 2016.

Sobrido, Marta, "The position of the European Union on the Svalbard waters," in Global Challenges in the Arctic Region: Sovereignty, Environment and Geopolitical Balance, edited by Elena Conde and Sara Iglesias Sanchez, Routledge: New York, 2017.

Staalesen, Atle, “Looming threats across northern Scandinavia trigger a Norwegian rearmament,” The Barents Observer, 22 January 2020.

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